Jamaica Observer http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/ JamaicaObserver.com, the most concise and in-depth website for news coverage on Jamaica and the Caribbean. Updated daily 7 days a week, 24 hours a day en-us copyright Jamaica Observer, 2011 Touchscreens may help toddlers develop better motor skills http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Touchscreens-may-help-toddlers-develop-better-motor-skills_75345 A new UK study has found that toddlers who use touchscreens may show improved fine motor control abilities.<br /> <br /> The use of touchscreens has increased massively in recent years, with statistics showing that in the UK alone, the number of touchscreen devices in the family home has increased from seven per cent in 2011 to 71 per cent in 2014.<br /> <br /> However, there is significant concern that use of touchscreen devices could hinder, not help cognitive development in children. Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics advise that children should not be exposed to screens before the age of two, with other countries around the world also adopting similar guidelines.<br /> <br /> However, despite the recommendations and parents&rsquo; concern, many children are still allowed to use touchscreen devices.<br /> <br /> To look further into possible positive or negative effects of the touchscreen trend, researchers from the University of London and King&rsquo;s College London gathered data from 715 UK families with children aged six to 36-month-olds using an online survey.<br /> <br /> Parents were questioned on whether their toddlers used touchscreens, when they first used one, and how often and how long they use them.<br /> <br /> The team also included specific questions to assess the development of the children, such as the age that they first stacked blocks, which indicates fine motor skills, or the age they first used two-word sentences, which indicates language development.<br /> <br /> The responses showed that the majority of babies and toddlers are exposed on a daily basis to touchscreens, with 51.22 per cent having access to a touchscreen at six-11 months, with this number increasing to 92.05 per cent at 19-36 months.<br /> <br /> When it came to their effect on development, the team found no significant association, positive or negative, between touchscreen use and the toddlers&rsquo; walking or language development. However, they did find a positive association in toddlers aged 19-36 months between the age that they started actively scrolling a touchscreen and the age that they were first able to stack blocks. <br /> <br /> However, although the positive finding could be due to touchscreen use boosting fine motor skills, it could also be that children with fine motor skills are more likely to use touchscreens earlier, with the team advising that more research is needed to look further into the effects of touchscreens on behavioural, cognitive, and neural development.<br /> <br /> The results of the study can be found published online in Frontiers in Psychology. <br /> <br /> &mdash; AFP http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13316643/231054_w300.jpg All Woman Wednesday, September 28, 2016 12:00 AM A fabulous birthday celebration http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/A-fabulous-birthday-celebration_75360 Princess Shani-Kayle recently had her sixth birthday soiree. Here are some highlights. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13316645/231059_58158_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13316649/231058_58150_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13316647/231057_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13316644/231061_58153_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13316650/231060_58159_repro_w300.jpg All Woman Wednesday, September 28, 2016 12:00 AM Bedwetting basics http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Bedwetting-basics_74642 BY PENDA HONEYGHAN BEDWETTING is a nightmare for many families, as sometimes no amount of techniques shared between parents or from older relatives seems to fix the problem. In fact, for some children, bedwetting could cloud their happiness well into their teenage years. <br /> <br /> While this may seem like a never-ending nightmare to these families, Dr Anona Griffith, paediatrician at Gateway Plaza, Old Harbour, says that this doesn&rsquo;t have to be their story.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;Bedwetting, also known as nocturnal enuresis, refers to an involuntary passage of urine during sleep in a child who should be dry. It generally falls into two categories, one being primary, where the child never had a prolonged period of dryness, while secondary enuresis refers to bedwetting after at least six months of dry nights,&rdquo; Dr Griffith said. <br /> <br /> She explained that the condition is a phase which all children experience and it generally resolves on its own, sometimes with a little assistance from parents. <br /> <br /> Dr Griffith said that a number of children, based their genetic make-up or other conditions out of their control, are generally more likely to be bedwetters. This group includes male children who are twice as likely to struggle with the condition; and a familial link, where if you suffered from the condition as a child, your child or grandchild could also experience the problem. Children with pre-existing conditions such as ADHD and learning disorders are also susceptible. <br /> <br /> She further explained that even though the condition is a natural part of the child&rsquo;s development, there are a number of things which affect the production and elimination of urine from the body. <br /> <br /> These include:<br /> <br /> 1) The intake of fluid.<br /> <br /> 2) Hormones which regulate the amount of urine produced during sleep.<br /> <br /> 3) The amount of urine that can be stored in the bladder.<br /> <br /> 4) Responsiveness of the bladder to signals from the brain to urinate.<br /> <br /> 5) Abnormalities of the bladder itself or nerves that control it such as in spina bifida. <br /> <br /> She encouraged parents not to allow the frustration associated with bedwetting to cloud their judgement since bedwetting could very well be an indication of existing medical problems. <br /> <br /> These include:<br /> <br /> 1) Infection of the bladder or urinary tract (UTI), fever, frequent passage of urine, pain on urination, lower abdominal pain.<br /> <br /> 2) Diabetes ( increased thirst and appetite).<br /> <br /> 3) Constipation.<br /> <br /> 4) Sleep apnoea (cessation of breathing during sleep) also may be associated with snoring, mouth breathing and nasal stuffiness.<br /> <br /> Dr Griffith said treatment sometimes requires the assistance of medical personnel.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;This process includes checking for the frequency of bedwetting per week, finding out whether the condition always existed or if there a recurrence after six months, testing the frequency and volume of urine passed on each occasion, the quantity and type of fluid the child drinks during the day, and identifying possible stressors,&rdquo; she said. <br /> <br /> Natural care treatments are generally carried out by parents and caregivers. She says this process is generally done to buffer emotional stress that may come into play.<br /> <br /> So:<br /> <br /> 1) Reassure, reassure, reassure. You want your child to know that bedwetting is a normal part of their development and that they have no reason to be frustrated. If needs be, let them know it is okay to take a little longer to stop because people&rsquo;s bodies develop at different rates. <br /> <br /> 2) Tell them that even those who don&rsquo;t wet the bed on a regular basis have accidents.<br /> <br /> 3) Remind them that it is nothing to be ashamed of.<br /> <br /> 4) Tell them stories about yourself or other family members who may have had a similar problem.<br /> <br /> 5) Ensure that other siblings or family members know that it&rsquo;s out of bounds to tease.<br /> <br /> 6) Set up a bedwetting alarm system so they can pee at night. <br /> <br /> 7) Be cognisant of any stressor that might be triggering bedwetting and address it. <br /> <br /> 8) Have them drink during the earlier part of the day, stopping at least two hours before bedtime.<br /> <br /> 9) Eliminate caffeine-containing products including chocolate.<br /> <br /> 10) Encourage urination just before bedtime. <br /> <br /> 11) Cover mattress with plastic cover.<br /> <br /> 12) Celebrate milestones achieved.<br /> <br /> 13) Have them assist in the clean-up process, but do not let it become a burden.<br /> <br /> Dr Griffith said that if parents are concerned about the emotional state of their children, then medical attention should be sought. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13316651/231053_w300.jpg All Woman Wednesday, September 28, 2016 12:00 AM Baby&rsquo;s bowel movements http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Baby-s-bowel-movements_75359 WHEN it comes to baby&rsquo;s bowel movements, normal is relative. Here&rsquo;s a rundown of what to expect, when, what&rsquo;s normal, and what&rsquo;s not.<br /> <br /> After birth<br /> <br /> After birth, a baby&rsquo;s first bowel movements are black and tarry. This type of baby poop is known as meconium.<br /> <br /> After feeding<br /> <br /> As the baby begins digesting breast milk, meconium is replaced with green-brown and then yellow-brown bowel movements.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Five days old<br /> <br /> By about five days after birth, breast-fed babies usually have seedy, loose bowel movements that are yellow to yellow-green or tan in colour. If you feed your baby formula, his or her bowel movements might become light brown and pasty.<br /> <br /> Other colours<br /> <br /> When your baby begins eating solid food, his or her bowel movements might become dark brown &mdash; although seemingly odd colours are possible as well. For example, baby poop might contain streaks of dark blue from blueberries. Green and orange baby poop is possible, too. You might also find chunks of undigested food in your baby&rsquo;s bowel movements.<br /> <br /> What to look for<br /> <br /> As you change your baby&rsquo;s diapers, pay attention to the consistency of his or her bowel movements. Breast-fed babies often have loose, watery stools. However, very watery bowel movements might indicate diarrhoea &mdash; and bowel movements that look like pebbles could indicate constipation.<br /> <br /> If you&rsquo;re concerned about the colour or consistency of your baby&rsquo;s bowel movements, contact your baby&rsquo;s doctor. This is especially important if your baby&rsquo;s bowel movements are:<br /> <br /> &bull;Still black several days after birth<br /> <br /> &bull; Red or bloody<br /> <br /> &bull; White or grey<br /> <br /> &bull; Consistently watery<br /> <br /> &bull; Consistently large, hard or difficult to pass.<br /> <br /> When you contact the doctor, be prepared to describe your baby&rsquo;s bowel movements, including colour, consistency, volume and frequency. The more details you provide, the better the doctor will be able to help you determine what&rsquo;s normal for your baby &mdash; and when treatment might be needed. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/9694297/ZZ235466EB_w300.jpg All Woman Wednesday, September 28, 2016 12:00 AM Picture perfect - September 28 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Picture-perfect---September-28_75377 Happy birthday<br /> <br /> Alexandria Noelle Chisholm celebrates her first birthday today, September 28. This dress that she&rsquo;s pictured in is 10 years old. Her mom bought it when she was praying for a little girl. <br /> <br /> Off to school<br /> <br /> Renique Ffrench is off to school.<br /> <br /> School days<br /> <br /> Raihana is neat as a pin in her school uniform.<br /> <br /> Happy birthday<br /> <br /> Kimonque and Simoneque will celebrate their seventh birthday on October 28. Love from mom, sister, uncle, grandparents and godparents. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13316637/231062_58155_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13316655/231088_58185_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13316656/231085_58183_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13316658/231087_58184_repro_w300.jpg All Woman Wednesday, September 28, 2016 12:00 AM Photo: I&rsquo;m Alexandria http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Photo--I-m-Alexandria_75361 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13316637/231062_58155_repro_w300.jpg All Woman Wednesday, September 28, 2016 12:00 AM Vows: Fallen For You http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Vows--Fallen-For-You_74979 Laura Butler, Miss Jamaica World franchise holder, and Marcus Hayle, manager-airline relations and analytics at Dallas-Fort Worth airport, met in December 2013 at the annual Pulse International Christmas party. Three years later they exchanged vows at Hanover Grange, Tryall Club.<br /> <br /> He asked&hellip;<br /> <br /> &ldquo;Our first date was a six-hour lunch,&rdquo; Laura shared with Vows, &ldquo;we became good friends before falling for each other. The proposal on September 26, in Dallas, was as memorable as the first date. Marcus recreated our Valentine&rsquo;s Day date in Dallas by taking me to the same restaurant Benihana, for an early dinner followed by a trip to a park in Lewisville where, along with hundreds of people with blankets and pillows, we sat on the lawn in front of a huge screen watching a movie. We parked our car and got a ride on a mini flatbed atop stacks of hay. After the movie, he drove me to Lake Carolyn where he had taken me for Valentine&rsquo;s Day. We walked along the lake with the gondolas in sight, then got to the exact location where dinner was served complete with candles and my favourite flowers, tulips. This time, however, he got down on one knee and asked if I could spend the rest of my life with him so he could have long dates with me.<br /> <br />  <br /> <br /> I said yes&hellip; because&hellip;<br /> <br />  <br /> <br /> Marcus pays attention to details and makes an effort. I remember asking where the fruit trees were in this state &mdash; surely there was one that I could find!<br /> <br /> He took the time to tie American apples to a tree (then unbeknownst to me), took me downstairs to the tree and invited me to pick them. I only realised that they were tied to the tree by a tiny string when I struggled to get them off. He is, too, a man of God and that&rsquo;s what I love most about him. We are good friends and both know there is no perfect relationship and that it will take work. We are, however, committed in love, respect and appreciation.<br /> <br />  <br /> <br /> We do&hellip;<br /> <br />  <br /> <br /> &ldquo;It was,&rdquo; recollected Laura, &ldquo; a very beautiful, emotional, heart-felt wedding that truly captured the essence of the strong bond of family and friendships. My eldest brother Craig surprised me, which really made my day. Family and friends travelled from across the country as well as the USA, the Cayman Islands, and Europe to share in our special day. Quite a few were actually visiting for the first time.&rdquo;<br /> <br /> Laura, stunning in a Stella York gown, was escorted up the aisle by her proud dad, Raphael Mortie Butler, to Andrea Bocelli and Celine Dion&rsquo;s interpretation of The Prayer and in a spectacular setting created by Dr Paulette Tai Chun and her Tai Flora Luxe team. Her groom stood dapper in a Calvin Klein suit.<br /> <br /> Rev Dr Martin Schade was the officiant, and to the resounding approval of all, Laura Butler became Mrs Marcus Hayle.<br /> <br /> The reception followed with catering duties handled by Suzanne Couch, sweet treats from Vinisha&rsquo;s Piece of Cake and the wedding cake from Michelle Smith of Chocolate Dreams.<br /> <br /> Anakay Russell of Pier 1 ensured a fully stocked bar.<br /> <br /> The couple&rsquo;s first dance as husband and wife was to Fallen by Lauren Wood and Crazy Love by Michael Buble.<br /> <br /> Laura and Marcus enjoyed the gorgeous Hanover Grange property for a few more nights alone, going for dates and exploring together their beautiful country. &ldquo; We agreed&rdquo;, said Laura, &ldquo;that we won&rsquo;t have one honeymoon but pockets of honeymoons throughout the marriage, to keep it alive.&rdquo; http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308651/230365_57491_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308650/230389_57507_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308653/230374_57494_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308654/230387_57506_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308655/230375_57495_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308656/230380_57499_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308657/230364_57490_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308658/230378_57497_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308660/230381_57500_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308661/230384_57503_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308662/230386_57505_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308663/230367_57492_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308664/230385_57504_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308666/230383_57502_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308667/230376_57496_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308668/230379_57498_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308669/230372_57493_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308671/230382_57501_repro_w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Rhona Morgan - Justice for all http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Rhona-Morgan---Justice-for-all_74867 By KIMBERLEY HIBBERT SHE recalls enjoying the likes of television characters Perry Mason and Matlock as a child, and vowed that she would follow the same career path and uphold human rights and justice in society.<br /> <br /> Now the senior legal officer at INDECOM, Rhona Morgan, 32, is tasked with investigating members of the security forces in cases where citizens allege that their rights have been abused by the police.<br /> <br /> But she tells All Woman that her passion for hard work and her strength of character were developed in one of the toughest garrisons in Jamaica.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;I was born in Kingston at Nuttall Hospital and moved to Spanish Town at a very young age to a community called Tawes Pen. For all intents and purposes, it&rsquo;s probably not the safest environment. It&rsquo;s a very well known garrison &mdash; home of the infamous One Order Gang,&rdquo; she said.<br /> <br /> But she said although she was exposed to many instances of violence, there were certain aspects of the community&rsquo;s culture that she wouldn&rsquo;t trade.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;It taught me leadership, interpersonal relations, sharing, kindness. You had good relationships with neighbours. When you&rsquo;re in an environment, you either sink or swim &mdash; you&rsquo;re forced to adapt, and you either fall prey to your circumstances or use them as a stepping stone to overcome. I had strong role models. There was my grandmother and there was my mother who was a hard worker. There were other men and women in the community who went out and earned an honest living, and that&rsquo;s what I wanted for myself,&rdquo; she said.<br /> <br /> And so, Morgan said she used this to catapult her into a different realm that would chart the course of her life.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;Those were Common Entrance days, so I deliberately chose high schools outside of Spanish Town so I could broaden my horizon and expand my network. This brought me to Holy Childhood High where I discovered a melting pot of different cultures,&rdquo; she said.<br /> <br /> Morgan explained that when she left high school she encountered one of the greatest challenges that would later help to fuel her self-motivation.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;When I was 16 and graduated high school, my father, who resides in London, filed for me to come to the UK so I could continue my studies there, but that process took several years. I went on to sixth form, completed it, and went on to Brunel University, London, did two years of the law programme there but had to leave because the application process for the filing was denied and I was given a time to leave and come back to Jamaica. I came back and applied for the student visa to finish up my studies but that was also denied, so I was now in a state of limbo,&rdquo; she said. &ldquo;What to do? I was forced to find employment here and I was given one week at LOJ [Life of Jamaica] to do data entry. One week became two weeks and that became six months. So I stayed and applied for the law degree at the University of the West Indies.&rdquo;<br /> <br /> Other difficulties she encountered included the rigorous process she had to endure to secure a student&rsquo;s loan.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;I had to sleep outside the office. I couldn&rsquo;t get guarantors and I had to pull everything together the night before. I remember Heather Robinson who assisted me to get documents, as my guarantor pulled out [at the last minute]. I really don&rsquo;t think she remembers, but I&rsquo;m eternally grateful as it gave me the opportunity to finish my studies even though I had to start over because my credits couldn&rsquo;t transfer because of outstanding fees,&rdquo; she said.<br /> <br /> Morgan is passionate about helping youth in the inner city, and believes that with proper guidance, direction and tutelage they can be assisted to elevate themselves out of their difficult circumstances.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;I was that person. I was that young lady who could have been easily pregnant at 14, 15, 16, were it not for good role models in my life. It does not have to be someone with a profession. All it has to be is that someone who takes the time and effort to reach out, make sure you&rsquo;re OK, answer your questions, your queries. Just that one person,&rdquo; she said.<br /> <br /> Morgan has served as a YUTE (Youth Upliftment Through Employment) ambassador, a board member of Eltham High School, and at the National Youth Service in order to give back her service to young people locally.<br /> <br /> One such instance is the HOPE Scholarship which Morgan, along with friends, started at Holy Childhood High.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;HOPE means that with hard work, opportunity and perseverance you will excel. I had the idea one day and got together a network of professionals from my high school. We were able to give one young lady a scholarship and $24,000 worth of books, and another received a $20,000 grant. We have also pledged time to meet with them and discuss what they would want to discuss &mdash; their career goals... issues. We have also decided to find out those career goals and match them with past students in those fields to offer guidance,&rdquo; she said.<br /> <br /> She advised: &ldquo;Pay attention to youth, particularly the inner-city youth. There is so much untapped potential... skill set... don&rsquo;t rule them out. If you want this economy to grow and Vision 2030 to materialise, you need youth to play a part in that.&rdquo;<br /> <br /> Morgan, who is also in tune with the performing arts and her creative side, conforms to the adage that &lsquo;the heights of great men reached and kept were not attained by sudden flight, but they, while their companions slept, were upward toiling through the night&rsquo;.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;You have to push the boundary and do what needs to be done,&rdquo; she said. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308605/230404_57514_repro_w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Why Libra men are best http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Why-Libra-men-are-best_74897 BY PENDA HONEYGHAN MANY women will ask men who approach them the month and date of their births even before they are asked their names, even if the men have not even overtly expressed an interest in pursuing them. And while many find this practice to be superstitious and baseless, there are others who swear by their ability to judge the character of a man by his zodiac sign. <br /> <br /> The practice, which has no clear structure or rules, has been used to classify whether men are good or mediocre in relationships, whether they will be good parents, good providers, or whether they&rsquo;re just good for a short-term fling.<br /> <br /> Which sign is best and which worst? Below, women share their opinions on the good, the bad and the ugly of each zodiac sign:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Kadian: <br /> <br /> The best lover for me has to be the October man. Libra men are very nice, gentle, and they are very loving, no matter what. They are kind to others, not just their spouses. The worst men to date are June men. The Gemini and Cancer men are very spiteful and arrogant. If they love you, they will give you the world, but if they hate you or are mad at you, you can&rsquo;t get anything from them. They&rsquo;re also very ungrateful and they will never forget.<br /> <br /> Patsy: <br /> <br /> I would say Libra men, the October men especially, are good men. They are loving and kind, loyal, caring, family-oriented, helpful and honest. On the other hand, I would say that the worst men are Taurus. They don&rsquo;t maintain their women and they prefer to take rather than give. They are self-righteous and think that the world revolves around them. They also fail to keep their word and don&rsquo;t live up to their end up the bargain almost always.<br /> <br /> Kim: <br /> <br /> The best lovers are Leo &mdash; great in bed and true in love &mdash; but even they have flaws because they are jealous and dangerous. The worst ones I would say are Taurus men. They are liars and they are very sketchy and crafty. <br /> <br /> Andrea: <br /> <br /> For me, July (Cancer, Leo) men make very good long-term partners. They are supportive and loving and kind, very helpful too. The worst partners I would have to say are February (Aquarius, Pisces) men. They are very stingy, they don&rsquo;t live up to their responsibilities, they don&rsquo;t care for their women, and instead would want to turn around and become leeches to the very women they fail to help, even when they have their own resources. <br /> <br /> Monique: <br /> <br /> The best, of course, are August (Leo, Virgo) men; my spouse and father being very good examples of this. They are always there when you need them, willing to compromise, helpful, and loving. Just don&rsquo;t aggravate them. December men (Sagittarius) are also very good men, but they are also womanisers and can be conniving. September men, those Virgo men, are the worst. They are very ignorant, they are mean, and by that I mean they like having things their own way.<br /> <br /> Mikhaelia: <br /> <br /> Aries and Geminis make the best lovers and long-term partners. Sagittarius and Taurus men are the worst. Sagittarius men like to think that a woman is too upright and rigid, and they love to assume. They don&rsquo;t like to be corrected and they are very annoying. Taurus men take baby steps with everything; they can be very frustrating and move at a different pace than they commit to.<br /> <br /> Nordia: <br /> <br /> Personally, the best lovers are Scorpio and Leo, but the best ones to date are Sagittarius. The worst ones, however, are those born very early in March (Pisces). They are liars and cheaters and they are very abusive too. <br /> <br /> Samantha: <br /> <br /> The best soulmates are Leo men, and I find Capricorn men to be the most dangerous and hard to deal with. They are wicked and liars. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308610/230415_57516_repro_w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Adoption procedures http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Adoption-procedures_74894 Margarette Macaulay DEAR MRS MACAULAY,<br /> <br /> I am from Philadelphia, USA. I am writing this letter because I want to adopt my 14-year-old second cousin because her mom is not working and can&rsquo;t afford to take care of all her three kids. It&rsquo;s been something that I&rsquo;ve wanted to do, but was unsure. Now I&rsquo;ve decided that I really want to help my cousin and adopt her daughter to take her to the United States, and hopefully get her in school and get a scholarship for college eventually. I am a citizen as well and wanted to find out about roughly how long the process is and what I need to do to make this happen.<br /> <br /> Your reference to the mother denotes her as a single parent as you made no mention whatsoever about your cousin&rsquo;s father. Can the father be found to be served documents?<br /> <br /> I understand from what you said that your cousin has not yet visited and stayed with you in the United States, but you wish to commence the process to culminate in your adoption of her and get her up to you as soon as possible. I will not venture to state how long it will take for you to apply for and have the process of your adoption completed. I can only say that it takes a good while and that it will take as long as you and the Adoption Board take to do all that is necessary and conclude all the processes.<br /> <br /> Let me deal first with how you can put yourself in the position to have your cousin go to stay with you in the United States while your application for her adoption is progressing. You can accomplish this by applying to the Supreme Court to be appointed as her guardian and for orders that you have legal custody and care and control of her. Once you obtain these orders, this will enable you to obtain the necessary visa for her to go and reside with you. Then her residential period with you will be built up and this will assist you in the adoption process, as you can then hopefully show that she is developing well and is happy and content in your care.<br /> <br /> To achieve this, you will have to retain the services of an attorney-at-law to whom you should provide all the necessary information and the necessary documents for the preparation of your application to the court for the orders appointing you as guardian and granting you sole custody and care and control, and for your application for her adoption. You or your lawyer on your behalf can contact the Adoption Board at the Child Development Agency, 48 Duke Street, Kingston, to obtain the Pre-Adoption Information Form and information package. Or, better yet, go to the websites &mdash;<br /> <br /> www.cda.gov.jm,<br /> <br /> www.cda.gov.jm/adoption/ or<br /> <br /> https://adopt.com/jamaica &mdash; as these will provide you with the necessary information for you to commence your adoption application.<br /> <br /> You can, as I have suggested, make the applications to the Supreme Court so that you can obtain and possess the legal authority to make all decisions about your cousin and to have her reside with you, as long as you successfully obtain a visa for her to do so. Then take steps to retain the services of an attorney here to act for you to prepare, file, ensure service and represent you at the hearing of your application to be appointed as your cousin&rsquo;s guardian and for orders granting you sole custody and care and control of her. Your application will have to be supported by your affidavit, putting all the relevant facts for the consideration of the judge, and it can be filed with her mother and (if known and can be found) her father as defendants. The mother in her affidavit in answer will clearly state therein her agreement with the application and her reason for her decision. The father should in his affidavit reply in a like manner. It may be necessary to effect a substituted service on the father if he is alive, but his whereabouts are unknown. Your lawyer will know what to do.<br /> <br /> I hope I have clarified the matter for you and you can move ahead now. Good luck to you and your cousin.<br /> <br /> Margarette May Macaulay is an attorney-at-law, Supreme Court mediator, notary public, and women&rsquo;s and children&rsquo;s rights advocate. Send questions via e-mail to allwoman@jamaicaobserver.com; or write to All Woman, 40-42 1/2 Beechwood Avenue, Kingston 5. All responses are published. Mrs Macaulay cannot provide personal responses.<br /> <br /> DISCLAIMER:<br /> <br /> The contents of this article are for informational purposes only and must not be relied upon as an alternative to legal advice from your own attorney.<br /> <br />  <br /> <br /> http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308598/230410__w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Dangers of detox no one tells you about http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Dangers-of-detox-no-one-tells-you-about_74802 By KIMBERLEY HIBBERT WITH the multitude of diseases related to food and our environment, it has become a fad to go to often extreme measures to rid our bodies of &ldquo;accumulated toxins&rdquo; as these toxins are thought to be the cause of our diseases. <br /> <br /> But, according to Dr Alfred Dawes, general, laparoscopic and bariatric surgeon, unfortunately nobody can say exactly which toxins are being expelled from your body by these treatments. <br /> <br /> One of the many fads include detox diets, but just how safe are these? Dr Dawes said in addition to the questionable efficacy of these treatments, some can be downright dangerous.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;Your body has a very good natural detoxification system in the skin, liver, kidneys, and even in the gastrointestinal tract,&rdquo; he said.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;The teas, cleanses and &lsquo;washouts&rsquo; that result in copious watery stool can lead to dehydration. This is especially dangerous in the elderly and those who do not adequately rehydrate their bodies during these cleanses. Dehydration can lead to low blood pressure, kidney failure, dizziness, and even comas. These cleanses also have the potential to wash out the good bacteria we need in our colons to help digest food and vitamins,&rdquo; he added.<br /> <br /> He explained that one popular method, colonic irrigation, is safe only in expert hands.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;Colonic irrigation involves putting a tube up your anus and washing out supposed toxins and plaques of faeces stuck to the wall of the colon. This is a safe procedure in expert hands, but there is still the risk of perforation of the rectal wall, leading to leakage of stool in the abdomen and severe infection. The majority of the water we drink is absorbed by the colon. It has an amazing capacity to absorb fluids. If large volumes of water are used in colonic irrigation, it can be absorbed enough to dilute the blood and cause chemical imbalances as well as fluid overload. Patients who are at risk for heart failure or have kidney disease should be especially cautious of this treatment.&rdquo;<br /> <br /> With regards to detox diets, Dr Dawes said these are particularly dangerous.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;These fruits, juicing, or tea diets are often nothing more than starvation diets that limit calorie intake. They are associated with rapid weight loss that often makes the user feel good &ndash; supposedly the effect of the removal of toxins. The truth is that much of that weight loss is from losing body water and the breakdown of muscles. Starvation diets are often done as regular detoxes. The effect of repeated starvation diets is the body going into starvation mode and storing fat more efficiently, leading to weight gain and its attendant complications,&rdquo; he pointed out.<br /> <br /> Dr Dawes said a hidden danger of detox is that patients forego proven medical treatments in favour of detoxes, and in so doing worsen their illnesses by delaying definitive care. <br /> <br /> &ldquo;People, especially with cancers, tend to gravitate to natural remedies that will flush the cancer or change the acidity of their bodies with the hope of a cure. In my practice people have shown up with advanced tumours that were being treated with these therapies in a hope to avoid surgery and chemotherapy. This is also seen in people who use various potions to flush gallstones out of the body,&rdquo; he said.<br /> <br /> He cautioned: &ldquo;They don&rsquo;t work. Delaying treatments that work is the single most dangerous aspect of detox therapy.&rdquo; http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308597/230408__w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Is it possible to tighten, tone and sculpt your body all at once? http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Is-it-possible-to-tighten--tone-and-sculpt-your-body-all-at-once-_73292 MANY people don&rsquo;t have the patience required to see results from exercise and often wish there was a way they could lose weight, tighten, tone and sculpt their body all at once.<br /> <br /> Personal trainer at Gymkhana Gisel Harrow said doing so is quite possible, and by simply exercising and dieting one can tighten, tone and sculpt to their desired goal.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;To achieve this, one needs to use an exercise programme consisting of weight training and cardio, eat balanced meals of protein, carbohydrates, plenty vegetables, and drink lots of water,&rdquo; she said.<br /> <br /> Below are some of the exercises that can help you tighten your skin and tone and firm your muscles.<br /> <br /> Overhead stretches:<br /> <br /> These help to tone the troublesome area under your arm that may become loose after losing weight. To do this, it is recommended that you sit comfortably with your back straight, hold one dumb-bell in each hand, resting them down at your sides. Next, you should raise your arms straight out in front of you with your palms facing inward. Slowly lift the dumb-bells straight up so they are above your head. Bend your elbows &ndash; your hands should be behind your ears. Hold for five to 10 seconds and lower your arms. Do 10 to 12 repetitions every other day.<br /> <br /> Crunches<br /> <br /> These abdominal exercises tighten and tone the muscles in your abdomen to get rid of a flap or extra skin. To perform a crunch you are required to lie on your back with your knees bent and your fingers interlocked behind your head. With your neck and back straight, raise your upper body off the floor to meet your knees, hold for five seconds, then return to your starting position. Repeat this move 10 to 20 times.<br /> <br /> Leg raises<br /> <br /> Excess skin may accumulate on your inner thighs. To tackle this, lie on your left side with your left leg straight and your right leg bent at a 90-degree angle and in front of your left leg. Prop yourself up on your elbow. Keeping your left leg straight and slowly raise it until you feel a slight pull in your inner thigh. Hold for five seconds and return to your starting position. Repeat 10 times then move to your left leg.<br /> <br /> &mdash; KH http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308595/230409__w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM I need a meal plan http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/I-need-a-meal-plan_74913 Donovan Grant Dear Donovan,<br /> <br /> I am looking to lose weight, but find it hard to put a diet plan together due to the lack of the right kinds of foods available in Jamaica. Could you please help me? Where do I start from? I am okay with my exercise routine, but just can&rsquo;t seem to come up with a meal plan based on the types of foods in Jamaica.<br /> <br /> I am very happy that you have decided to lose some weight. This will have a positive effect on both your looks and your health. However, I must tell you that in many cases, putting together an effective, personalised meal plan for weight loss might need the services of a professional. I must also tell you that the idea of not having the right kinds of foods in Jamaica to set up a weight-loss programme might not necessarily be true. From my assessment, what I think you really need to understand is the principle of weight loss. <br /> <br /> In order to lose weight, you will have to make some lifestyle changes. The idea is to take in fewer calories/food than we burn/use up. In a nutshell, the idea is to create a calorie deficit which forces the body to use up some of its reserved fat. This is usually what happens when you are sick. For most people, when they are sick the appetite goes and less food is eaten. The body is usually forced to use up some of its reserves. Therefore, weight loss usually takes place. However, as soon as we get better, the appetite comes back and usually so does the weight.<br /> <br /> Generally, in order to lose weight, the calorie-burning process with exercise/activity will have to be increased. I was hoping that you would have given me some idea of what your present eating habits are. You would have to start by assessing and changing your diet. You can start by writing down the things that you have eaten over the last three days. This will give an idea of your present food consumption. Once you have this, some changes will have to be made, either in the portions or changing what you eat. <br /> <br /> In my mind, it is not only good to lose weight, but also healthy. Therefore, your food choices must also be taken into consideration. Since I don&rsquo;t know what you are eating, I am going to list some food choices some Jamaicans have selected to get weight loss results.<br /> <br /> 1. Yoghurt and fruits<br /> <br /> 2. Steamed veggies and light carbohydrates<br /> <br /> 3. Meal-replacement shakes<br /> <br /> 4. Green juices<br /> <br /> 5. Coconut water<br /> <br /> 6. Protein with raw vegetables<br /> <br /> 7. Fruit salads.<br /> <br /> In addition, you could also structure your exercise routines. <br /> <br /> We will answer your weight-related questions.<br /> <br /> Are you struggling to lose weight or just need some advice on living a healthier life? Tell us about your health issues and we&rsquo;ll have nutritionist and wellness coach Donovan Grant answer them for you. Grant has over 12 years&rsquo; experience in the fitness industry and is the owner of DG&rsquo;s Nutrition and Wellness Centre, Suite 16, 39 Lady Musgrave Road, Kingston 5. Send your questions to <br /> <br /> clarkep@ jamaicaobserver.com.<br /> <br /> http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308599/230407_57489_repro_w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Directory of women&rsquo;s services http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Directory-of-women-s-services_74174 Here is a list of places you can contact if you are a woman in need of help. Do not hesitate to call anyone at the following groups if you are dealing with issues such as domestic abuse, unplanned pregnancies, or are in need of counselling to cope with a traumatic experience.<br /> <br /> Bureau of Gender Affairs<br /> <br /> Call them: 754-8575-8, or 929-6660<br /> <br /> Kingston and St Andrew Family Court<br /> <br /> Call them at: 922-0001<br /> <br /> Child Development Agency<br /> <br /> Call them at: 948-7206<br /> <br /> Office of the Children&rsquo;s Advocate<br /> <br /> Call them at: 948-3279<br /> <br /> Women&rsquo;s Centre of Jamaica Foundation<br /> <br /> Call them at: 929-7608<br /> <br /> Women&rsquo;s Resource and Outreach Centre<br /> <br /> Call them at: 929-8873<br /> <br /> Woman Inc<br /> <br /> Call them at: 929-9038<br /> <br /> The Crisis Centre<br /> <br /> Call them at: 929-2997<br /> <br /> Missionaries of the Poor <br /> <br /> Call them at: 922-4414<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Centre For Investigation Of Sexual Offences & Child Abuse (CISOCA)<br /> <br /> Call them at: 926-7318 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/4248540/abuse-gfx_w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Signs your mate is totally fed up with you http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Signs-your-mate-is-totally-fed-up-with-you_74770 By KIMBERLEY HIBBERT FRUSTRATION in relationships is not always overt, and many people are secretly harbouring annoyance with their mates. Recognising that your partner is bored, annoyed or simply fed up is not easy to do, as denial may cloud your judgement. But when it&rsquo;s time to face the truth, these signs of frustration will either mean you&rsquo;ve done your time or need to work at saving your union.<br /> <br /> How do you identify them? Relationship counsellor Wayne Powell said a few signs your partner is fed up with you include:<br /> <br /> 1. Choosing to spend more time with others<br /> <br /> Powell said if your significant other would rather spend extended periods of time with friends, family and associates, then he or she may be annoyed with you or something you&rsquo;ve done, and is just avoiding you.<br /> <br /> 2. Constantly picking fights<br /> <br /> The relationship counsellor said frustration often leads to arguments and a flare-up of tempers.<br /> <br /> 3. Frequent disrespect<br /> <br /> Powell said if your spouse constantly disrespects you, especially in public, it&rsquo;s a sign that his or her care and patience have run thin.<br /> <br /> 4. Lack of contact<br /> <br /> If no effort is being made to call or contact you, the relationship counsellor said your partner may be avoiding you or has become disinterested and frustrated with you.<br /> <br /> 5. Disregard for your presence<br /> <br /> Powell said another sign of frustration involves your partner behaving coldly towards you and even disregarding your presence.<br /> <br /> 6. Being demeaning<br /> <br /> The relationship counsellor said frustration may manifest in your partner being overly critical of you and neglecting to pay you compliments.<br /> <br /> 7. A breach of trust<br /> <br /> &ldquo;If your partner shares your secrets with others, he or she may be frustrated to the point where they want you to leave,&rdquo; Powell said.<br /> <br /> 8. No regard for special dates<br /> <br /> He said if your partner deliberately forgets your birthday or anniversary, he or she may be annoyed with you and is making an attempt to upset you.<br /> <br /> 9. Overt infidelity<br /> <br /> If your partner flaunts infidelity, Powell said it is a sign of disrespect, and that he or she may have moved on from the relationship.<br /> <br /> 10. Not associating with you<br /> <br /> Powell said it is important to not brush aside your partner&rsquo;s refusal to go out or be seen in public with you.<br /> <br /> Powell said when you see these signs, it&rsquo;s important to know that your mate is trying to send you a message. So those who have eyes to see, let them see and those who have ears to hear, let them hear. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308588/230412__w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Exercise away your mental condition http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Exercise-away-your-mental-condition_74895 By PENDA HONEYGHAN PHYSICAL exercise is synonymous with physical fitness and wellness, but its prowess in contributing to improved mental health has garnered little attention. But senior registrar with the Kingston and St Andrew Community Mental Health Services and psychiatrist at the Edgewater Medical Centre in Bridgeport, St Catherine, Dr Danielle Nelson, explains that much benefits could be reaped by patients with mental conditions. <br /> <br /> &ldquo;In examining this issue, we have to ponder, does exercise improve mental health, or is exercising a sign of good mental health? Scientists do acknowledge that persons who take the decision to exercise may naturally practise a wide range of positive health behaviours that keep them in better mental health. They also may have a psychological disposition that may in itself protect their mental health, like being resilient. The different types of studies, however, show that the association of exercise with improvements in mental health is clear,&rdquo; Dr Nelson explained. <br /> <br /> She pointed out that physical exercise has been touted for its role in the control of a host of diseases, including diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease, and some cancers have been linked to lack of physical activity. <br /> <br /> &ldquo;But people may not be aware of the beneficial effects exercise can have on mental health. The positive effects of exercise on mental health can be categorised into prevention of mental illness, treatment of mental disorders, and improvement, in general, of mental and physical well-being &ndash; both for those with mental illnesses and those without,&rdquo; Dr Nelson said. <br /> <br /> Dr Nelson pointed out that while exercise is known to aid in coping with mental illnesses, one of its finest attributes is its role in the prevention of these conditions. <br /> <br /> &ldquo;In many studies, regular exercise has been associated with a reduced risk of the development of depressive and anxiety disorders, the most common mental disorders. Paffenbarger, a leading physician and public health researcher, and his colleagues, studied a group of young men over a 25-year period. They found depression rates to be lower in the men who exercised, as well as the athletes. The lower rates of depression stayed the same over the 25 years for those who continued this healthy habit,&rdquo; Dr Nelson shared. <br /> <br /> In a second study, which Dr Nelson said was conducted by Hassmen and colleagues in over 3,000 men and women in Finland, the findings suggest that exercise shares a close association with improvements in signs of general mental well-being across populations. <br /> <br /> &ldquo;[The study shows] that persons who exercised more frequently reported better social lives and increased sense of belonging than those who exercised less. They also found persons who exercised reported feeling less stressed than those who did not. Persons who exercised regularly reported higher self-esteem and other positive personality traits, such as a balance of feelings of external and internal locus of control,&rdquo; Dr Nelson said. <br /> <br /> She said that with even the argument of prevention out of the way, physical exercise, like other forms of medication, have found a home in the treatment department of mental illnesses, earning the respect of a plethora of health practitioners, and comes highly recommended for these patients. <br /> <br /> &ldquo;Exercise is also used as a treatment for disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders, in combination with other therapeutic interventions. Several studies on exercise as the treatment for depression found there to be a significant reduction in depressive symptoms in those diagnosed with depression, with regular exercise. Insomnia is also a common problem, affecting approximately 30 per cent of adults over a lifespan. Daytime exercise has been found to be the most influential behavioural factor in improving sleep quality, although this positive effect is also related to sunlight exposure during exercise and sunlight&rsquo;s effect on the body&rsquo;s internal clocks,&rdquo; Dr Nelson told<br /> <br /> All Woman. <br /> <br /> She said The American College of Sports Medicine defines exercise as planned, repetitive and structured activity, with the goal of improving fitness. <br /> <br /> &ldquo;The same group recommends that adequate exercise is a physical activity performed at least two or three times a week, for at least 15&ndash;20 minutes on each occasion, and with an intensity that results in increased breathing and perspiration. Physical exercise does not have to be complicated, nor does it have to involve gyms or expensive equipment. Walking, jogging and exercises that involve using one&rsquo;s own body weight as resistance are only some of the many free, simple forms of exercise,&rdquo; Dr Nelson shared.<br /> <br /> She acknowledged that, while physical exercise is beneficial to the treatment of mental and other medical conditions, it is important to keep all doctor&rsquo;s appointments and to follow through with medical recommendations as per ordered by your personal physician. <br /> <br /> &ldquo;It is important to note that exercise is a vital part of a healthy lifestyle, but is not a cure-all for any health concern. Persons who are experiencing physical illness, psychological distress and psychiatric illness still need to seek expert assessment and care to tackle these issues. Your physician [should be able to help you to start] a suitable exercise regimen,&rdquo; she urged. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308590/230411__w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Reasons you&rsquo;re bleeding other than your period http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Reasons-you-re-bleeding-other-than-your-period_73225 By KIMBERLEY HIBBERT BLEEDING outside of your period should always be considered abnormal and can be due to a variety of causes. <br /> <br /> According to obstetrician-gynaecologist, Dr Anna-Kay Taylor Christmas, if you are experiencing this, it is best to seek the attention of your gynaecologist to make sure there is nothing serious going on. <br /> <br /> Dr Taylor Christmas said causes for irregular bleeding are varied and include: <br /> <br /> 1. Vaginal or cervical infections<br /> <br /> Such infections can cause severe irritation of the genitals. &ldquo;Also, these tend to cause an abnormal discharge with or without odour. They need to be treated quickly to decrease the risk of infection spreading to the tubes and inside the belly.<br /> <br /> 2. Vaginal bruising or tearing during sex<br /> <br /> &ldquo;This is more likely to occur during rough intercourse. If you are bleeding heavily after intercourse, seek medical attention right away as a large amount of blood can be lost in a short space of time from the vagina. Bruising on the vulva can cause spotting and can be treated with warm salt water baths,&rdquo; she said.<br /> <br /> 3. Polyps or abnormal thickening of the lining of the uterus (the endometrium)<br /> <br /> The Obgyn said these abnormal growths are usually detected on an ultrasound and can cause heavier periods than normal or irregular bleeding outside of the normal time for the period. &ldquo;They have numerous causes, some of which are genetic, and others which are caused by hormonal factors. Although most are benign in menstruating women, a biopsy or sampling of the lining is important to rule out something cancerous. Treatment can then be planned easily to correct the problem and stop the irregular bleed,&rdquo; Dr Taylor Christmas said.<br /> <br /> 4. Uterine fibroids<br /> <br /> She said these are common growths of the womb found in a high percentage of Jamaican women. They can cause extremely heavy periods with a lot of clots and can also cause bleeding to occur at irregular times. She said an ultrasound must be done to accurately diagnose fibroids and differentiate from other things that can enlarge the womb. She added that treatment will then depend on the size, location and symptoms of the fibroids as well as the desire for future pregnancy.<br /> <br /> 5. Endometriosis<br /> <br /> &ldquo;This can also cause abnormal bleeding and is usually accompanied by pain, which may be quite severe around the time of the menses. If more advanced, the pain can be present all the time and may be associated with infertility or difficulty getting pregnant,&rdquo; she said.<br /> <br /> 6. Hormonal medication<br /> <br /> Dr Taylor Christmas said examples of hormonal medication include contraceptives or the morning-after pill. &ldquo;Contraceptives commonly cause irregular bleeding, especially in the first few months of starting them. The morning-after emergency contraceptive also can cause a change in the normal menstrual cycle and irregular bleeding,&rdquo; she said. &ldquo;Talk with your gynaecologist if you are experiencing this after using a contraceptive. Other medications such as blood thinners can also cause irregular and heavier bleeding if the blood becomes too thin.&rdquo;<br /> <br /> 7. Cancer of the vagina, cervix, uterus and ovaries <br /> <br /> &ldquo;This can also cause bleeding outside of the regular period and is the reason that irregular bleeding (especially if persistent) must always be checked by a doctor. Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of female cancers in women who still see their period, and can be prevented (or treated early) with regular Pap smears and annual checks at the gynaecologist,&rdquo; the ObGyn said.<br /> <br /> Dr Taylor Christmas added: &ldquo;Irregular bleeding should never be ignored because it can be a sign of a more serious problem.&rdquo; http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13195243/220448_w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM About infectious mononucleosis &mdash; the kissing disease http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/About-infectious-mononucleosis---the-kissing-disease_74788 By KIMBERLEY HIBBERT INFECTIOUS mononucleosis (IM), also known as mono or the kissing disease, is an infection that may cause the symptom triad of fever, sore throat and enlarged lymph nodes (glands) in the neck. <br /> <br /> Dr Jomo James, internist, said in the majority of cases, it&rsquo;s caused by the Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV) that belongs to the same family of viruses as herpes. <br /> <br /> &ldquo;It should be pointed out that there are many other microorganisms, including bacteria that may cause the same mononucleosis-type syndrome; however, when it is solely as a result of EBV, it&rsquo;s called infectious mononucleosis,&rdquo; he said.<br /> <br /> With regards to who the disease affects, Dr James said EBV is a widely disseminated virus that is spread by intimate contact between susceptible individuals and EBV shedders. However, humans and possibly primates are the only known reservoir for the virus. <br /> <br /> He added that IM peak infectious rates occur in the 15- to 24-year-old age group, and pointed out that historically the name IM was given after an outbreak in college students in 1920 in Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore.<br /> <br /> Subsequently, Dr James said it was not unusual for IM to be associated with college students, and most children have been exposed to EBV even before reaching adolescence.<br /> <br /> The internist said EBV is most commonly transmitted through saliva, hence the term &ldquo;kissing disease&rdquo;.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;It therefore means a person can be exposed to the virus by kissing, sharing eating utensils, or drinking from the same glass as a person who has mono. Rarely, IM can be transmitted sexually, through blood transfusion, and even organ transplant; however, these are inefficient means of transmission and the risks are considered to be very low. Therefore, kissing is a major risk factor for IM,&rdquo; he said, adding that there are no vaccines currently available against EBV.<br /> <br /> Dr James said most people who become infected with EBV develop no symptoms, but the older you are, the more likely you will develop symptoms from EBV. <br /> <br /> He said it may take up to a month after exposure for the first symptoms to appear. The most common IM symptoms include:<br /> <br /> 1)Fever<br /> <br /> 2)Sore throat<br /> <br /> 3)Enlarged lymph nodes<br /> <br /> 4)Fatigue &ndash; easily tired.<br /> <br /> The internist said these symptoms last from two weeks up to a month, and not all individuals exhibit all the symptoms at any given time.<br /> <br /> He added that EBV can also affect other organs in the body such as the liver and, most importantly, the spleen. <br /> <br /> &ldquo;In the liver it can cause a mild hepatitis which can lead to jaundice (yellowing of the eyes). The spleen is an organ in the left upper abdomen, just under the diaphragm. It becomes enlarged in about half of people with mono. If the spleen becomes enlarged, doctors recommend avoiding contact sports or heavy lifting for a few weeks due to the risk of splenic rupture.&rdquo;<br /> <br /> Dr James said there are no specific treatments for IM; however, the main treatment is supportive care to alleviate the symptoms, while giving the body its own time to overcome the virus. He however cautioned against the use of antivirals and antibiotics.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;Patients usually begin to feel better after one to two weeks and recover completely without any long-term complications,&rdquo; he said. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/11591611/DNA_w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM His babymother still sends him gifts http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/His-babymother-still-sends-him-gifts_74898 Wayne Powell Dear Counsellor,<br /> <br /> I&rsquo;ve been in a serious relationship for two and a half years now. We have been living together for almost a year. He had a daughter before we got together. She is one year old. My problem is that his babymother gave him a gift on Father&rsquo;s Day and on his birthday. I do not think he should be accepting her gifts because she is still in love with him and it looks like she is trying to buy her way back into his life. He is saying he cannot stop people from giving him stuff, but I don&rsquo;t accept that. My point is, if he does not accept them, then she will understand that he does not want anything from her. I just think that they should only be communicating about their daughter and nothing else. <br /> <br /> He says he has no interest in her and he wants to spend the rest of his life with me. I am just not comfortable with these gifts, and he opens them when I am at work and when I go home I see them in the room and on the dresser. <br /> <br /> The next thing is that he wants to have a child before marriage and I don&rsquo;t, and this is something that we cannot seem to agree on. We want separate things. <br /> <br /> Some babyfathers don&rsquo;t seem to want to draw boundary lines between themselves and their babymothers. So, instead of relating to the babymother only and except with issues concerning the child, they leave the door open and continue on with business as usual. So girlfriends/wives like yourself are left trying to force them to establish clear lines of demarcation.<br /> <br /> What are the likely reasons that would make some of these babyfathers fail to take a stand?<br /> <br /> 1. He maybe a deadbeat dad and so the child&rsquo;s mother may threaten to take him to family court if he does not pay her some attention;<br /> <br /> 2. He may very well wish to remain an integral part of her life for obvious reasons (maybe sexual and/or financial);<br /> <br /> 3. He may still be in love with her and is not prepared to let go;<br /> <br /> 4. She may still be in love with him and will shower him with gifts and &ldquo;goodies&rdquo; he can&rsquo;t refuse.<br /> <br /> According to what you are saying, it could be the last and that he is encouraging her by accepting the gifts. That could well be the case, or it could be she is trying to ensure he remains in the child&rsquo;s life and so the gifts are expressions of appreciation for him being a good father. Maybe when the child grows up she will take on the gift-giving responsibilities, and so she is just starting a trend that she hopes the child will carry on when she is able to.<br /> <br /> The truth, though, is that the mother of the child will always have a place in the man&rsquo;s life whether or not the relationship between them is severed. She will always have access to him, particularly if the child is an infant, and so as the girlfriend you will have to be aware of that fact.<br /> <br /> However, you are correct. If he claims that he has no interest in her and wants you to hold that significant other position in his life, then he must institute certain boundaries. Accepting and parading the gifts is being somewhat insensitive to your feelings and sends the wrong signals to both you and her.<br /> <br /> If his defence is that he can&rsquo;t stop her from showering him with gifts, it appears that he is comfortable with the present arrangement, and the argument that he does not have any interest in her is erroneous. Why then would you be willing to accept and show off gifts from someone whom you don&rsquo;t really care for? Could he not accept these gifts? No doubt he could. If there is no receiver, there will be no giver. As you contemplate starting a family with the gentleman, be mindful of not being regarded as babymother number two. If you are not comfortable with such an arrangement, do what you think is necessary and is in your best interest.<br /> <br /> Wayne Powell is a relationship counsellor. Write to crisscounselloronline@gmail. com; check out his work overseas on www.seekingshalom.org, e-mail powellw@ seekingshalom.org.<br /> <br /> http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13310812/230413_w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM More than 30 things you should not be doing in your 30s http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/More-than-30-things-you-should-not-be-doing-in-your-30s_74182 By ALPHEA SAUNDERS MANY people in their 30s and beyond will happily tell you that this is the &ldquo;new 20&rdquo;s, that they are in the prime of their lives and are at liberty to live and act however they wish. But some social experts believe that there are just some things that are a no-no once you&rsquo;ve climbed over the three-oh.<br /> <br /> According to relationship counsellor Wayne Powell, you should stop depending on parents for financial support and sustenance after 30. Job-hopping is definitely not cute either, as it is indicative of instability. <br /> <br /> Other &lsquo;30s don&rsquo;ts&rsquo; on his list include starting and not completing courses; playing the field and being labelled as promiscuous; borrowing and spending money unwisely; dressing like a teenager (underwear showing in public); hanging out and bleaching all night at bars, nightclubs etc; engaging in petty arguments and squabbles; aimlessly wandering without a moral compass; and living with family and friends with no desire to occupy or own your own space.<br /> <br /> Meanwhile, Heather a 30-something-year-old communications practitioner, says these should definitely be on the blacklist: <br /> <br /> *Eating kids cereals and non-nutritional foods<br /> <br /> *Being sedentary<br /> <br /> *Calling your significant other &ldquo;bae&rdquo; <br /> <br /> *Singing Justin Beiber songs<br /> <br /> *Wearing &lsquo;batty riders&rsquo;, low riders and pants below the waist<br /> <br /> *Fighting over men/women<br /> <br /> *Participating in dance-offs at the club<br /> <br /> *Using slangs and social media language such as &ldquo;brb&rdquo;<br /> <br /> *Putting your entire life and every thought on social media.<br /> <br /> For Weston, a deejay by night and a nine-to-five corporate driver, if you&rsquo;re 30 and over you should not be living with a room-mate.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;You should be on your way by then, this is not college. Also, you shouldn&rsquo;t need your parents&rsquo; attention, they are not gonna be around forever. Learn to live your own life. You shouldn&rsquo;t be in high school-like cliques where you need the group approval for decisions. You shouldn&rsquo;t go out when you know you&rsquo;re broke. Oh, and you shouldn&rsquo;t be a virgin. Boss man, just no.&rdquo;<br /> <br /> Beautician Tessanne says women in their 30s with childish hairstyles are tacky. <br /> <br /> &ldquo;You see all those twists and updos and whatnot you see some big women with sometimes? Some of it is cute, yes, but some of us need to stop feeding off YouTube like it is some authority on life. At 35 and 40 and 50, some things are just a thumbs down. Another thing, &lsquo;cake face&rsquo; in your 30s and 40s looks desperate. With make-up, less is always best, but especially as a maturing woman.&rdquo;<br /> <br /> Roger, a banking customer service agent, believes that catcalling is foolish and is only acceptable from teenagers or &lsquo;corner men&rsquo; who don&rsquo;t know better.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;Who even responds to &lsquo;pssssst&rsquo; anymore, anyway? If you&rsquo;re a big ole 30 plus-year-old man, time fi dash weh boyish things now,&rdquo; he remarked.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;Still playing video games? Put that away. Nothing is more annoying than a grown man sitting around all day &lsquo;playing&rsquo;. Leave that to your 10 year old,&rdquo; hospitality worker Lorna said. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308576/230414__w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Turn your dud into a stud http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Turn-your-dud-into-a-stud_74896 By PENDA HONEYGHAN THE 21st-century woman&rsquo;s voice in the bedroom carries a lot of weight, and as she morphs into a sexual creature, her craving for out-of-the-box bedroom showdowns &ndash; give or take the influence of Mills & Boon or some other penny dreadful romance series &ndash; is elevated.<br /> <br /> Some sexual demands, however, are more easily conjured than fulfilled, since her traditional, non-adventurous lover may show no interest in the exploring of &ldquo;new age&rdquo; sexual practices. <br /> <br /> How does she move forward? This week All Woman asked female readers to share their expertise at convincing their circumspect partners to go on these sexual adventures with them.<br /> <br /> Michel: <br /> <br /> We watch X-rated movies together, sometimes even read or share these novels (he loves reading). But even though he&rsquo;d read these books in the past, he never did much that was new until we starting discussing these scenes more, and I took the initiative to merge some of the scenes from the books into real life. We discussed it together because I didn&rsquo;t want to force anything on him. As it turns out, my nerd is kinkier than I thought. What I will say is that it never hurts to ask; the fact that he doesn&rsquo;t do it doesn&rsquo;t mean he is totally against it or wouldn&rsquo;t try. <br /> <br /> Allie: <br /> <br /> He would tease but would never indulge, so one day while he was teasing, I put my palm on the top his head and guided him to where he should go. When the contact was made and he saw my reaction, there was no going back. I also reciprocated, which helped.<br /> <br /> Venese: <br /> <br /> I don&rsquo;t beat around the bush, honestly. I tell him what I want and tell him that if he cannot give it to me, then I&rsquo;ll find somebody who will. Sometimes he breaks and tries it out, other times he doesn&rsquo;t, but I am not going to beg him when I have done more than one favour for him that can&rsquo;t even be mentioned in the newspaper.<br /> <br /> Afia: <br /> <br /> I play truth or dare with him. My husband is a man of his word and we promise to fulfil all commands of the game. I also have a way of somehow bringing up how good my ex was at something &ndash; even if I&rsquo;ve never done it before &ndash; because my husband is competitive and he wants to be the best at everything. My husband is so committed to my sexual happiness that he will even go and do research to ensure my satisfaction. <br /> <br /> Opal: <br /> <br /> Never underestimate the power of talking dirty. That&rsquo;s how, most of the time, I get my man to try new things with me. I have learned that men don&rsquo;t like being forced or pushed, but if you find a nice way of proposing it, then they might very well buy in. It also pays to be wearing something sexy when you make the proposal, or if you are talking dirty. <br /> <br /> Terry: <br /> <br /> I think I found one who doesn&rsquo;t have his head fastened in the dark ages. He will pretty much try anything, and I am fine with that. He isn&rsquo;t big on kissing either, but that I can live with. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13308578/230416_57530_repro_w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Remember: Be heart healthy http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Remember--Be-heart-healthy_74804 THURSDAY September 29 is World Heart Day and the biggest platform of the World Heart Federation for raising awareness about cardiovascular disease.<br /> <br /> World Heart Day was founded in 2000 to inform people around the globe that heart disease and stroke are the world&rsquo;s leading causes of death, claiming 17.3 million lives each year. <br /> <br /> According to the World Heart Federation, World Heart Day spreads the news that at least 80 per cent of premature deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD) could be avoided if four main risk factors &ndash; tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol &ndash; are controlled. <br /> <br /> The federation also stated that the success of World Heart Day depends on the proactivity of organisations from around the world to help us spread awareness of CVD, the world&rsquo;s number one killer<br /> <br /> The federation said: &ldquo;This World Heart Day, we want everyone to understand what they can do to fuel their hearts and power their lives. Your heart is at the heart of your health. And it&rsquo;s easy to give it the care it deserves. Just a few simple steps such as eating more healthily, cutting down on alcohol and stopping smoking can improve your heart health and your overall well-being.&rdquo; http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/11407278/heart_w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Aw Fashion :Denim Choker Revolution http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Aw-Fashion--Denim-Choker-Revolution_74752 The &lsquo;90s fashion trend of the choker has resurfaced and reached such a level of prevalence that it has been &lsquo;man-ified&rsquo;, &lsquo;tripled up&rsquo; and &lsquo;mommy-and-me&rsquo;d&rsquo;. Fashion designer and store owner Devarine &lsquo;Fashionenira&rsquo; McLean adds her own twist to this latest craze with her crafty collection of hand-made denim chokers. &ldquo;Chokers are trending right now, and as a retailer I always try to keep up and add my flavour to the movement; I&rsquo;ve always had the idea of denim chokers in mind but didn&rsquo;t get the motivation until Kim Kardashian made it a thing,&rdquo; shared the designer with <br /> <br /> AWF as her reason for jumping on board the movement.<br /> <br /> McLean, who was born in the US but raised in Jamaica, is a self-taught designer. She credits her mother, Pauline Welcome-McLean, who has been designing since the &lsquo;70s for her foray in the industry.<br /> <br /> The collection features seven styles: plain, light denim; plain, dark denim; black denim, dark and light distressed denim; buttoned denim; and the danger edition which is loaded with safety pins. The response to the denim chokers has been overwhelming. Little wonder really... they&rsquo;re super stylish.<br /> <br /> Fashionenira is located at Shop #15, Springs Plaza, Half Way Tree http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312608/229963__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312612/229965__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312613/229967__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312609/229968__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312610/229980__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312611/230018__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312607/230019__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312615/229973__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312616/229969__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312617/229971__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312618/229972__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312619/229966__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312620/229974__w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13312621/229964__w300.jpg All Woman Monday, September 26, 2016 12:00 AM Caricom states commit to continue empowering women, girls http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Caricom-states-commit-to-continue-empowering-women--girls_74744 UNITED NATIONS (CMC) &ndash; Caribbean Community (Caricom) countries have pledged their &ldquo;resolve&rdquo; to achieve positive outcomes for empowering women and girls in the Caribbean as part of UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon&rsquo;s global-inspired movement and as a celebration of his legacy.<br /> <br /> Speaking on behalf of Caricom at a special reception Tuesday evening, convened by Ban on the &lsquo;Everyone, Every Child High-Level Initiative&rsquo;, Antigua and Barbuda Prime Minister Gaston Browne praised the outgoing UN secretary general for his vision that emphasises the enhancement of the health and well-being of women, girls and adolescents.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;Your initiative inspired the formulation of this &lsquo;Every Caribbean Woman, Every Caribbean Child (ECWECC) Commitment; co-ordinated by Caricom and UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund), endorsed by the July 2016 Conference of Caricom Heads of Government and championed by Caribbean first ladies,&rdquo; he added.<br /> <br /> Browne said that the commitment places emphasis on achieving a series of goals by 2020.<br /> <br /> He said these include being the first region in the world to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV; reducing the number of adolescent pregnancies in each country by at least 20 per cent; achieving universal access of adolescents to age-appropriate accurate information, as well as access to quality sexual and reproductive health care services and commodities; and implementing age-appropriate gender and culturally sensitive sexuality education.<br /> <br /> The commitment also seeks to adopt legal and social protection mechanisms for the prevention of all forms of violence against adolescent girls, and to demonstrate that solutions to women&rsquo;s health, especially with respect to cervical cancer, rest on an &ldquo;effective integrated health system, with emphasis on early detection, &lsquo;test and treat&rsquo;&rdquo;.<br /> <br /> Following Ban&rsquo;s leadership, Browne said Caribbean countries have adopted the &ldquo;He-for-She&rdquo; campaign involving boys and men as part of the solution.<br /> <br /> He said this campaign was launched by UN Women and the Jamaican government &ldquo;and is championed by two famous men &ndash; in no particular order of global importance &ndash; the prime minister of Jamaica and Usain Bolt.&rdquo;<br /> <br /> But Browne said the success of the &lsquo;Every Caribbean Woman, Every Caribbean Child&rsquo; campaign will &ldquo;obviously depend on fostering partnerships for this US$15-million commitment.&rdquo;<br /> <br /> He disclosed that Caricom countries have already gained the support of the Clinton Global Initiative and several UN agencies, such as UNPFPA, Pan-American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation, and UN WOMEN, adding that &ldquo;we have overwhelming endorsement from civil society at country level&rdquo;. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13303519/172055__w300.jpg Local News Thursday, September 22, 2016 12:00 AM Am I really pregnant? http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Am-I-really-pregnant-_74156 Dr Daryl Daley SO the &ldquo;dirty&rdquo; went down a few weeks ago, and you have been toying with the idea that pregnancy is a possibility. One week has passed and your period is overdue; everything in your body feels off. Reality then hits when that &ldquo;pee stick&rdquo; has two bright lines! Pregnancy is a reality!<br /> <br /> Pregnancy affects every system of the body, and this is due to both the elevation and production of many hormones. What are these early pregnancy symptoms that accompany those two bright lines?<br /> <br /> 1. Shortness of breath<br /> <br /> Simple activities such as walking or climbing stairs may be associated with increased shortness of breath. The simple reason for this is that the foetus requires more oxygen and thus mom is deprived of her normal amount. This symptom usually worsens as pregnancy increases.<br /> <br /> 2. Sore breasts<br /> <br /> This is usually one of the first signs of pregnancy. The breasts start to become engorged and are very tender. The simple task of even putting on a bra or sleeping on the chest will become difficult.<br /> <br /> 3. Dizziness/fainting <br /> <br /> The rising hormones cause changes in the blood pressure, especially in the first trimester. As the body adjusts, the blood pressure normally falls in early pregnancy, which can result in fainting episodes.<br /> <br /> 4. Fatigue <br /> <br /> Tiredness is a common symptom and is worse in the first trimester.<br /> <br /> 5. Nausea and vomiting<br /> <br /> Most commonly known as &ldquo;morning sickness&rdquo;, this should be termed &ldquo;every hour sickness&rdquo;, as it can continue throughout the entire day in some women. At times, the vomiting can be so extreme that hospital admission may be necessary.<br /> <br /> 6. Gum/nose bleeding and excess spitting <br /> <br /> Because of engorged blood vessels in the nose and gum, bleeding can occur from either, for example, brushing teeth, or sporadic nose bleeds in the morning. Excess hormones can also cause excess saliva production, resulting in pregnant women continuously spitting.<br /> <br /> 7. Mood swings <br /> <br /> These hormones are no joke! Women can have bursts of uncontrollable crying to emotions of extreme happiness and joy to moments of anger and despair. These swings are all normal and usually remain for the entire pregnancy, so spouses, gear up!<br /> <br /> 8. Frequent urination/constipation <br /> <br /> The uterus is right in the middle between the bladder and rectum. As the uterus enlarges, it will start to compress the bladder and rectum resulting in the uncontrollable urge to urinate and difficulty passing stool.<br /> <br /> 9. Bloating and backaches<br /> <br /> Common symptoms which are very vague and are present from the early days of pregnancy.<br /> <br /> 10. Cravings <br /> <br /> In early pregnancy some women crave small and sometimes large amounts of random food items.<br /> <br /> 11. Spotting <br /> <br /> It is not uncommon to have some spotting in early pregnancy. However, if there is pain, it may be a sign of miscarriage.<br /> <br /> Once you suspect pregnancy, confirm it with a pregnancy test. If that test is positive, contact your OBGYN for him to guide you on your new journey<br /> <br /> Dr Daryl Daley is a consultant OBGYN at Gynae Associates, 23 Tangerine place, Kingston 10, and shops 46-50, Portmore Town Centre, Portmore. He can be contacted at 929-5038/9 and 939-2859 or drdaryldaley@gmail.com. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13236601/224041_51477_repro_w300.jpg http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/assets/13195283/220451_56872_repro_w300.jpg All Woman Wednesday, September 21, 2016 12:00 AM