Today is the 283rd day of 2012. There are 83 days left in the year.
1963: Major General Sir Edward Frederick William David Walugembe Mutebi Luwangula Mutesa II, ruler of Buganda becomes the first president of Uganda. Buganda is a kingdom within Uganda.
1701: The Collegiate School of Connecticut — later Yale University — is chartered in New Haven.
1760: Russians capture Berlin.
1801: Turkey formally recovers Egypt by treaty with France.
1806: Prussia declares war on France.
1958: Pope Pius XII dies, 19 years after he was elevated to the papacy. He was succeeded by Pope John XXIII.
1967: Latin American guerrilla leader Che Guevara is executed in Bolivia while attempting to incite a revolution.
1970: Work begins on the Trans-Amazon highway.
1971: Army rebels in Argentina surrender after a 19-hour attempt to overthrow the government.
1981: Israel's Prime Minister Menachem Begin arrives in Cairo for funeral of Egypt's President Anwar Sadat.
1989: Newly created Hungarian Socialist Party adopts a manifesto vowing commitment to democracy.
1990: Forty-seven people are killed in India when a train car is set afire by terrorists protesting an injunction against an affirmative-action plan.
1991: The US Food and Drug Administration conditionally approves the sale of DDI, the second drug used for routine AIDS treatment. It was approved for use by patients who failed to respond to AZT, the only other drug currently approved.
1992: The UN Security Council votes to ban all flights by military aircraft over Bosnia-Herzegovina and create a "no-fly zone".
1993: Somali warlord General Mohammed Farah Aidid offers a cease-fire with US and UN forces in Somalia.
1998: After 15 years of disgrace, Ariel Sharon returns to the centre of power as foreign minister of Israel in charge of peace talks with the Palestinians.
2000: A Slovenian ski instructor becomes the first person ever to ski non-stop down the slopes of Mount Everest in Kathmandu.
2001: Americans Eric A Cornell, Carl E Wieman and Wolfgang Ketterle win the Nobel Prize in physics for creating a new state of matter: the Bose-Einstein condensate which is an ultra-cold gas that could aid in developing smaller and faster electronics.
2002: Sniper attacks kill three people in northern Virginia, bringing to 11 the total number of victims killed or wounded in a string of related shootings in the Washington, DC area.
2006: The UN Security Council formally nominates South Korean Foreign Minister Ban Ki-moon to succeed Kofi Annan as UN secretary-general.
2007: The impoverished Nama tribe wins back diamond-rich land confiscated by a government mining company more than 80 years ago, ending South Africa's longest running court case.
2009: A beaming President Barack Obama says he was both honoured and humbled to win the Nobel Peace Prize and would accept it as a "call to action" to work with other nations to solve the world's most pressing problems.
2010: Chile's trapped miners cheer and embrace each other as a drill punches into their underground chamber, opening a way out with a spray of rock and dust from the collapsed mine where they have been stuck for an agonising 66 days.
2011: Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk appears to clinch a second term in office for his centrist, pro-European Civic Platform party in parliamentary elections, a historic first in the country's post-communist era.
Camille Saint-Saens, French composer (1835-1921); Tawfiq Hakim, Egyptian writer (1898-1987); Jacques Tati, French film director and actor (1908-1982); John Lennon, British pop singer (1940-1980), Sharon Osbourne, actress (1952-), Sean Lennon, British singer (1975-).