1919: Cultural icon Louise Bennett is born in Kingston, Jamaica.
1822: Brazil proclaims independence from Portugal. 1848: Serfdom is abolished in Austria. 1901: Peace of Peking ends Boxer Rebellion in China.
1971: Rhodesian security police kill seven and wound one member of FRELIMO, the Mozambique Liberation Front. The fighting took place on the Rhodesian side of the Mozambique-Rhodesian border when guerrillas looking for food threatened the occupants of an African kraal. Rhodesia is now known as Zimbabwe.
1977: The Panama Canal treaties, calling for the US to eventually turn over control of the waterway to Panama, are signed in Washington DC.
1996: In Rome, an 18-year-old black woman is named Miss Italy after two judges at the pageant are dismissed for saying her skin colour doesn’t reflect true Italian beauty.
1999: Greece’s deadliest quake in more than 40 years strikes outside Athens, killing at least 101 people.
2005: UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and his top deputy failed the ideals of the United Nations in their management of the oil-for-food programme by allowing corruption and waste to flourish, a year-long probe concludes.
2006: A fire breaks out in a Siberian gold and metals mine, killing 25 miners who fight the blaze or attempt to escape through long underground tunnels.
2007: Osama bin Laden appears for the first time in three years in a videotape released ahead of the sixth anniversary of the September 11 attacks, telling Americans they should convert to Islam if they want the war in Iraq to end.
2008: Astroland, New York City’s world famous amusement park at Coney Island, closes after 46 years. 2010: The international crossfire over Iran’s stoning sentence for a woman convicted of adultery intensifies with a top European Union official calling it “barbaric” and an Iranian spokesman saying it’s about punishing a criminal and not a human rights issue.
Giacomo Ancionio, Italian theologist (1492-1566); England’s Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603); August Kekule von Stradonitz, German chemist (1829-1896); Elia Kazan, US film director (1909-); Todor Zhivkov, Communist ruler of Bulgaria (1911-1998); Belgium’s King Baudouin (1930-1993); Leroi Moore, saxophonist (1961-2008); Sonny Rollins, US jazz musician (1930-).
AP and the Jamaica Observer