Today is the 291st day of 2012. There are 75 days left in the year.
1997: Former Rwandan Prime Minister Jean Kambanda is charged by the UN International Criminal Tribunal with genocide and crimes against humanity in the 1994 slaughter of a half-million Rwandans.
1918: Republic of Yugoslavia is formally established.
1912: Turkey declares war on Bulgaria and Serbia.
1933: Albert Einstein arrives in the US as a refugee from Nazi Germany.
1945: Col Juan Peron stages coup in Buenos Aires and becomes absolute dictator of Argentina.
1957: French author Albert Camus is awarded the Nobel Prize in literature.
1961: Authorities crack down on Algerians in Paris who are demonstrating for independence. Historians estimate at least 200 were killed.
1977: West German commandos storm a hijacked Lufthansa jetliner in Mogadishu, Somalia, freeing all 86 hostages.
1979: Mother Teresa wins Nobel Peace Prize for her work with the destitute in Calcutta, India, over three decades.
1993: Indian officials try to talk Muslim separatists occupying Kashmir's holiest shrine into surrendering, but the rebels refuse, threatening to blow up the mosque if soldiers enter.
1996: Boris Yeltsin fires security chief Alexander Lebed one day after the former general is accused of building his own army in an attempt to seize power.
1997: The remains of revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara are laid to rest in his adopted Cuba, 30 years after his execution in Bolivia.
1999: The head of Pakistan's new military regime Gen Pervez Musharraf announces a reduction of troops on the Indian border, the establishment of a military-technocrat ruling council and an eventual return to civilian rule.
2000: A high-speed passenger train travelling from London to Leeds derails in the commuter belt north of the British capital, killing four and injuring 34.
2001: Israel's tourism minister Rehavam Zeevi, who advocated the ouster of all Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, is shot dead in the first ever assassination of a serving Cabinet minister.
2002: The Patriotic Movement of Ivory Coast, a newly formed rebel group that launched a violent uprising in September, signs a truce with West African international mediators to halt the rebellion and begin peace talks with the government.
2005: China celebrates the successful landing of the country's second manned space flight as a boost to its status as a space power.
2006: A British-educated civil servant, Lateefa al-Geood, becomes the first-ever female to serve as an elected member of Bahrain's parliament.
2008: The US government declares that the beluga whales of Alaska's Cook Inlet are endangered and require additional protection to survive.
Mikhail Naimy, Lebanese poet-philosopher (1889-1988); Arthur Miller, US
playwright (1915-2005); Rita Hayworth, US actress (1918-1987); Eminem, US