A first-of-its-kind World Health Organization (WHO) Global report on sodium intake reduction shows that the world is off-track to achieve its global target of reducing sodium intake by 30 per cent by 2025.
Sodium, an essential nutrient, increases the risk of heart disease, stroke and premature death when eaten in excess. The main source of sodium is table salt (sodium chloride), but it is also contained in other condiments such as sodium glutamate. The report shows that only five per cent of WHO member states are protected by mandatory and comprehensive sodium reduction policies and 73 per cent of WHO member states lack full range of implementation of such policies.
Implementing highly cost-effective sodium reduction policies could save an estimated seven million lives globally by 2030. It is an important component of action to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goal target of reducing deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). But today, only nine countries (Brazil, Chile, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Spain, and Uruguay) have a comprehensive package of recommended policies to reduce sodium intake.
"Unhealthy diets are a leading cause of death and disease globally, and excessive sodium intake is one of the main culprits," said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO director general.
"This report shows that most countries are yet to adopt any mandatory sodium reduction policies, leaving their people at risk of heart attack, stroke, and other health problems. WHO calls on all countries to implement the 'Best Buys' for sodium reduction, and on manufacturers to implement the WHO benchmarks for sodium content in food."
A comprehensive approach to sodium reduction includes adopting mandatory policies and WHO's four "best buy" interventions related with sodium which greatly contribute to preventing NCDs. These include:
Reformulating foods to contain less salt, and setting targets for the amount of sodium in foods and meal;s
Establishing public food procurement policies to limit salt or sodium rich foods in public institutions such as hospitals, schools, workplaces and nursing homes;
Front-of-package labelling that helps consumers select products lower in sodium;
Behaviour change communication and mass media campaigns to reduce salt/sodium consumption.
Countries are encouraged to establish sodium content targets for processed foods in line with the WHO Global Sodium Benchmarks and enforce them though these policies.
Mandatory sodium reduction policies are more effective, as they achieve broader coverage and safeguard against commercial interests, while providing a level playing field for food manufacturers. As part of the report, WHO developed a sodium country score card for member states based on the type and number of sodium reduction policies they have in place.
"This important report demonstrates that countries must work urgently to implement ambitious, mandatory, government-led sodium reduction policies to meet the global target of reducing salt consumption by 2025," said Dr Tom Frieden, president and CEO of Resolve to Save Lives, a not-for-profit organisation working with countries to prevent 100 million deaths from cardiovascular disease over 30 years.
"There are proven measures that governments can implement and important innovations, such as low-sodium salts. The world needs action, and now, or many more people will experience disabling or deadly — but preventable — heart attacks and strokes."
The global average salt intake is estimated to be 10.8 grams per day, more than double the WHO recommendation of less than five grams of salt per day (one teaspoon). Eating too much salt makes it the top risk factor for diet and nutrition-related deaths. More evidence is emerging documenting links between high sodium intake and increased risk of other health conditions such as gastric cancer, obesity, osteoporosis and kidney disease.
WHO calls on member states to implement sodium intake reduction policies without delay and to mitigate the harmful effects of excessive salt consumption. WHO also calls on food manufacturers to set ambitious sodium reduction targets in their products.
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