Today is the 139th day of 2023. There are 226 days left in the year.
1962: Actress Marilyn Monroe performs a rendition of Happy Birthday for US President John F Kennedy during a fund-raiser at New York's Madison Square Garden.
1535: Jacques Cartier sails from St Malo, on his second voyage to Canada, to explore the St Lawrence River and discover the future site of Montreal.
1554: France's King Henry II invades the Netherlands.
1585: English shipping in Spanish ports is confiscated, serving as a declaration of war on England.
1588: The Spanish Armada sets sail for England; it is soundly defeated by the English fleet the following August.
1649: England is declared a republic after King Charles I is executed by parliamentarians.
1792: Russia invades Poland at the behest of Polish conservatives, resulting in the second partition of Poland.
1881: The American Red Cross is founded by Clara Barton.
1897: Armistice ends Thirty Days' War, with Greece conceding defeat to newly modernised Turkish army.
1898: Postcards are first authorised by the US Post Office.
1900: The Tonga Islands in the South Pacific becomes a British protectorate. The world's longest railroad tunnel, the 19-kilometre (12-mile) long Simplon Tunnel opens. The tunnel links Switzerland to Italy through the Alps.
1916: Britain introduces Daylight Saving Time, originally called "summer time".
1930: White women are enfranchised in South Africa.
1935: T E Lawrence, also known as Lawrence of Arabia, dies in England from injuries sustained in a motorcycle crash.
1943: In an address to the US Congress, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill pledges his country's full support in the war against Japan.
1967: The Soviet Union ratifies a treaty with the United States and Britain banning nuclear weapons from outer space.
1973: The Soviet Union and West Germany sign a 10-year agreement calling for economic, industrial and technical cooperation.
1993: Colombian jetliner crashes near Medellin, killing 132.
1994: Kamuzu Banda of Malawi, with 30 years at the helm as Africa's longest-ruling dictator, concedes defeat to Bakili Muluzi in the country's first multi-party election.
1997: More than 350 people are killed when a cyclone sweeps coastal Bangladesh.
1998: Indonesian students storm the Parliament in Jakarta, demanding President Suharto's resignation.
1999: Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic accepts "principles" of a Kosovo peace plan as NATO jets bomb Belgrade suburbs.
2001: The World Health Organization adopts diluted proposal on wider international access to cheap HIV/AIDS drugs. The WHO urges tackling the epidemic instead.
2005: Egyptian authorities arrest 75 members of the Muslim Brotherhood and extend the detention of four leaders jailed earlier in a government crackdown sparked by a wave of pro-reform protests by the banned movement believed to be Egypt's largest Islamist group.
2006: The UN panel that monitors compliance with the world's anti-torture treaty says the United States should close its prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and avoid using secret detention facilities in the war on terror.
2007: British Prime Minister Tony Blair, on his last visit to Iraq before stepping down in June, urges Iraq's leaders to speed up reconciliation efforts — after three blasts rock the compound in Baghdad's Green Zone where he met with Iraq's leaders.
2008: The Dalai Lama meets with Germany's development minister, provoking criticism within Angela Merkel's Government after the chancellor angered China by inviting the Dalai Lama to the chancellory.
2009: President Barack Obama's promise to close the Guantanamo Bay prison suffers a blow when his allies in the Senate said they would refuse to finance the move until the administration delivers a satisfactory plan for what to do with the detainees there.
2011: President Barack Obama steps into an explosive Middle East debate, endorsing a key Palestinian demand for the borders of its future state and prodding Israel to accept that it can never have a truly peaceful nation based on "permanent occupation".
2012: A blind Chinese legal activist is hurriedly taken from a hospital and put on a plane for the United States, closing a nearly month-long diplomatic tussle that had tested US-China relations.
2013: Around 11,000 police officers and soldiers block an annual conference at Tunisia's main religious centre by a radical Islamist movement that has been implicated in attacks across the country, prompting clashes with angry youths that result in one death.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of modern Turkey (1881-1938); King Faisal I, first king of independent Iraq (1883-1933); Ho Chi Minh, Vietnamese communist leader and president of North Vietnam (1890-1969); Pol Pot, Cambodian communist leader (1925 or 1928-1998); Pete Townshend, British rock singer-composer of The Who (1945- ); Grace Jones, Jamaican-born singer-actress (1952- ); Malcolm X, Muslim minister and human rights activist (1925-1965)
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