Today is the 262nd day of 2022. There are 103 days left in the year.
1961: Jamaica holds a referendum on its continued membership in the West Indies Federation. The majority vote to with draw.
1356: The English under Edward, the Black Prince, defeat the French at Poitiers and take King John II prisoner.
1656: An English fleet under Robert Blake captures Spanish treasure ships off Cadiz, Spain.
1777: The Americans defeat a British force at the First Battle of Saratoga, a turning point in the American War of Independence.
1783: The Montgolfier brothers send aloft a balloon with a rooster, a duck, and a sheep aboard, rapidly advancing French aeronautics.
1796: In his farewell address printed in a Philadelphia newspaper, George Washington, the first US president, implores his country to maintain neutrality and avoid entangling alliances with Europe.
1870: The French surrender Versailles to Germans in Franco-Prussian War.
1881: James A Garfield, the 20th president of the United States, dies of wounds inflicted by an assassin.
1893 New Zealand becomes the first country to grant all women the right to vote.
1941: The Germans take Kiev in the Soviet Union.
1944: The Soviet Union and Finland sign a peace treaty in Moscow, ending a three-year war.
1955: President Juan Perón of Argentina is overthrown and flees to Paraguay after an army-navy revolt led by democratically inspires officers.
1959: Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, on a visit to Los Angeles, reportedly becomes furious when informed that he can't visit Disneyland for security reasons.
1960: Chubby Checker's The Twist hits number one the Billboard Hot 100.
1962: China attacks Indian forces, seizing part of Kashmir after a three-week war.
1970: The Mary Tyler Moore Show premieres on CBS.
1972: An Israeli diplomat is killed and another injured when a letter bomb explodes at the Israeli embassy in London.
1978: Egypt’s Cabinet unanimously approves President Anwar Sadat’s Camp David agreement to sign a peace treaty with Israel within three months.
1983: Caribbean islands St Kitts and Nevis become independent of Britain.
1984: China and Great Britain announce their agreement to transfer Hong Kong to Chinese rule in 1997.
1985 A magnitude-8.1 earthquake in Mexico City kills an estimated 10,000 and leaves 250,000 homeless.
1986: US Federal health officials announce AZT will be available to AIDS patients.
1989: A French airliner blows up over Niger, killing 171 people; Libya is later blamed for the explosion.
1991: In the Ötztal Alps on the Italian-Austrian border, German tourists discover a mummified human body (later known as the Iceman) that was subsequently determined to date from 3300 bce.
1992: Dr Nigel Cox is convicted of attempted murder in Great Britain because he administered a fatal injection to an elderly patient who asked him to help her die.
1994: US troops peacefully enter Haiti to enforce the return of exiled President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
1995: An Iranian flight attendant hijacks a Kish Air Boeing 707 to Israel during a flight from Tehran; the plane is returned to Tehran with 174 passengers and crew.
1997: A crowded passenger train collides with a freight train in west London, killing six people and injuring more than 170 others.
1999: Foreign peacekeeping troops begin pouring into East Timor, experiencing no resistance from Indonesian troops or anti-independence militias.
2001: Islamic clerics urge terrorist suspect Osama bin Laden to leave Afghanistan voluntarily, but set no deadline for him.; the United States threatens to attack the Taliban if they don’t turn in bin Laden.
2002: Israeli forces demolish 20 buildings and other structures in Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat’s headquarters in the West Bank city of Ramallah after Palestinian suicide attacks kill seven Israelis.
2003: Venezuela suspends oil shipments to the Dominican Republic because of a plot being hatched there to overthrow Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez. Venezuela had sold about 110,000 barrels of oil a day to the Dominican Republic, making up 70 per cent of that country’s oil supply.
2004: Hu Jintao becomes the undisputed leader of China as the country completes its first orderly transfer of power in the communist era with the departure of former President Jiang Zemin.
2005: A parliamentary commission announces that Polish President Aleksander Kwasniewski and six other politicians should face a special court over allegations of abuse in dealing with a partly State-owned oil company.
2006: Thailand’s army commander stages a coup ousting Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra while he is in New York, circling his offices with tanks, declaring martial law, and revoking the constitution.
2007: Anti-Syrian lawmaker Antoine Ghanem, who had returned to Lebanon two days earlier from refuge abroad, is killed along with six other people by a bomb that rocks a Christian neighbourhood of Beirut.
2008: China’s food safety crisis widens after the industrial chemical melamine is found in milk produced by three of the country’s leading dairy companies.
2009: Russia says it will scrap a plan to deploy missiles near Poland since Washington dumped a planned missile shield in Eastern Europe.
2010: Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad says that “the future belongs to Iran”, and challenges the United States to accept that his country has a major role in the world on the first day of his visit to the United States to attend the annual General Assembly of the United Nations.
2011: The Palestinians brush aside heated Israeli objections and a promised US veto, vowing to submit a letter formally requesting full UN membership when Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas addresses the General Assembly. Panamanian baseball pitcher Mariano Rivera registers his record-setting 602nd career save; when he retired in 2013 Rivera had an unprecedented 652 saves and was considered the sport’s greatest relief pitcher.
2012: Scholars question the much-publicised discovery by a Harvard University scholar that a 4th century fragment of papyrus provided the first evidence that some early Christians believed Jesus was married.
2013: Pope Francis warns that the Catholic Church’s structure might “fall like a house of cards” if it does not balance its divisive rules about abortion, gays and contraception with the greater need to make it a merciful, more welcoming place for all.
2015: English author Jackie Collins, whose glamorous public persona echoed the lavish lifestyles of the characters in her provocative romance thrillers, dies at age 77.
France’s King Henry III (1551-1589); Jean-Baptiste Joseph Delambre, French astronomer (1749-1822); George Cadbury, British chocolate manufacturer (1839-1922); William Golding, British writer and Nobel laureate (1911-1993); Jeremy Irons, English actor (1948- ); Twiggy Lawson, British actress/former model (1949- ); Sunita Williams, American astronaut (1965- ); Trisha Yearwood, US country singer (1964- ); Jimmy Fallon, US actor/comedian (1974-)
— AP/ Jamaica Observer